Pruning your Roses – A Spring Rite for Rosarians

We prune our roses for several reasons – to keep our roses healthy, to control its excessive growth and to shape the bush for a better display.

 

pruning - rose.orgnicseo.us

Before we rush out there in the garden, make sure you have all the right equipments. A good pair of bypass pruner preferably Felco. No 2 is recommended. Keep your pruner very sharp. A sharp pruner is less taxing to your hand and creates less bruising on your roses. For cutting larger canes, a lopper is a better choice. Their longer handles make it easier to cut through thicker canes. You should also have a pruning saw for those extra thick canes.

 

Also, of utmost importance is to wear gloves. A good leather glove is a must to protect yourself from too many scratches. Long sleeved shirts or jackets will protect your arms and wrists. Hat is also important to protect your face from the sun and to protect your head if you are balding. Make sure your tetanus booster shot is up to date.

 

Your first agenda is to cut the dead, diseased and damaged canes. Cut until you see the white or cream-colored pith. If necessary, you can go down to almost near the bud union. Roses will bloom on a dark-colored pith but once the weather warms, the canes die back or become unproductive. Don’t go crazy looking for white pith on “Peace” rose. It does not have white pith. After getting rid of the dead and diseased canes, begin cutting the longer canes first and get them out of your way. Pay close attention to what you are doing. Work from the outside in. Remember that you are surrounded with thorns so be very careful.

 

Pruning 1

 

Cut above the leaf with five leaflets to about ¼ inch from the bud. If longer, the cane can die back and if shorter, new growth might break off in the wind. Cut to an outward facing bud so a new growth will face outward too. With few exception, like roses that tend to grow sideways, cut in the direction you want the branch to grow. Roses like The McCartney Rose, First Prize and Just Joey tend to sprawl so prune them to an inside acing bud. Always remember to aim at an open space in the bush. Make the cut on a slant so water drain off. I used to seal the cut with Elmer’s glue to prevent the cane borer from burrowing into the newly cut canes. Someone told me it is not necessary.

 

You also want to open the center of the bush for good air circulation to ward off diseases. Cut long and straggly canes and canes that are crossing or touching each other leaving the stronger canes. I usually cut to about a foot high except for the shrub types which can go from 18 inches to 24 inches tall. Leave three or four good healthy canes. If only one cane is available, cut it lower to encourage new growth from the bud union.

 

On Hybrid Teas, Grandiflora, and some Floribundas, remove stems smaller than a pencil because they will not produce good blooms for cutting. For exhibitors, cutting back to 6 to 12 inches length will produce stronger canes and good quality blooms. Miniature roses are pruned the same way as Hybrid Teas. If you find this too tedious, you can go drastic and use a hedge pruner and prune to 5” high. Mother Nature is very forgiving and usually corrects our mistakes so don’t worry too much. Climbers and ramblers bloom from the 2-year old canes so cut the dead wood only and trim to desired shape. Old Garden Roses also bloom from the second-year wood so cut only the dead wood in spring and prune drastically after flowering to promote growth and improve its shape.

 

Remove all blind shoots. These are branches that taper down to almost nothing. Remove spurs. These are short growths only a few inches long that have hardened off and taper down to a point. They will not flower.

 

Prune to desired height you want for your rose. Some rosarians want their roses tall. I want my roses short and compact looking. I can also look down at them instead of stretching my neck to appreciate their beauty. After you are done pruning, remove every leaf. These old leaves are the reservoir for black spot and mildew. You might also want to start your spraying program with dormant oil to take care of the overwintering insects. Also, spread a handful of Epsom salt around each bush for better growth. Then you can relax a little bit while waiting for the new growth to arrive.

 

Until Next time. Stop and Smell the Roses.

Rosalinda R Morgan

Author & Garden Writer

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How many red roses do you have in your garden?

Today is National Red Rose Day. A red rose conjures of romantic love, passion, respect and courage. In celebration of the National Red Rose Day, I’m listing the red roses in my garden. I have 21 red roses, 17 varieties.

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1.       1 Mister Lincoln – dark red – Hybrid Tea

2.      2 Veterans’ Honor – dark red – Hybrid Tea

3.      1 Firefighter – dark red – Hybrid Tea

4.      1 Ingrid Bergman – dark red – Hybrid Tea

5.      1 Drop Dead Red – dark red – Floribunda

6.      1 Let Freedom Ring – medium red – Hybrid Tea

7.      2 Dublin Bay – medium red – Climber

8.     1 Miracle on the Hudson – medium red -Shrub

9.      1 Oso Easy Cherry Pie – medium red – Shrub

10.  1 Othello – medium red – Shrub

11.   1 Grande Amore – medium red – Hybrid Tea

12.  1 Cramoisi Superieur – medium red – China

13.  1 Louis Philippe – red blend – China

14.  1 Fourth of July – red blend – Climber

15.  2 Scentimental – red blend – Floribunda

16.  2 Rock & Roll – red blend – Grandiflora

17.   1 Dick Clark – red blend – Grandiflora

 

Here is a poem by Robert Burns (1759-1796) titled

A RED. RED ROSE

 O, my Luve’s like a red, red rose,

That’s newly sprung in June.

O, my Luve’s like a melodie

That’ sweetly play’d in tune.

 

As fair as thou, my bonnie lass,

So deep in love am I;

And I will love thee still, my dear,

Till a’ the seas gang dry.

 

Till a’ the seas gang dry, my dear,

And the rocks melt wi’ the sun:

I will love thee still, my dear,

Thile the sands o’ life shall run:

 

And fare thee well, my only luve!

And fare thee weel a while!

And I will come again, my luve,

Tho’ it ware ten thousand mile.

 

 

Happy National Red Rose Day!

Until Next time. Stop and Smell the Roses

Rosalinda R Morgan

 

Rose Glossary

 

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‘Our Lady of Guadalupe’

 

 

Here is a Rose Glossary to help you understand some rose terms and enjoy your rose gardening hobby to the fullest.

 

AARS – All American Rose Selections

AGRS – American Garden Rose Selections

ADR rose – a winner in the German ADR rose trial (Allgemeine Deutsche Rosenneuheitenprüfung). No chemical pesticides have been allowed since 1997.

ARC – American Rose Center

ARS – American Rose Society

Anther – the part of the flower which produces pollen.  It is the upper section of the stem.

Axil – The angle between the upper surface of the leaf stalk and the stem that carries it.

Balling – the clinging together of petals in wet weather so that the bloom fails to open and turns to brown color.

Bare-root – a rose dug up at the nursery and sold with no soil around the roots.

Basal shoot – a shoot arising from the neck or crown of the plant.

Blind shoot – a mature stem which fails to produce a flower.

Bloom – stem having one-bloom-per-stem with no side buds.

Bract – a modified or reduced leaf that occurs beneath and next to a peduncle.

Bud eye – A dormant bud on the axil of a leaf.

Bud stage – Rose should be less than 50% open.  Sepals must be down.

Bud Union – the swollen part of the stem where the scion of a grafted rose meets the understock.

Calyx – the green protective cover of a rose flower, composed of the sepals.

Cane – one of the main stems of a rose plant.

Corolla – the petals of a rose flower considered as a single unit.

Cultivar – a named rose variety exhibiting distinct and consistent features, indicated by single quotation marks.

Deadheading – removing spent flowers.

Disbudding – removing buds from side or center of spray to improve overall appearance of specimen.

Disease Resistant Roses – Roses that have been bred to resist many diseases.  Disease resistant are just that resistant but not immune to disease.

Foliar feed – a fertilizer capable of being sprayed on and absorbed by the leaves.

Hard Pruning – Rose canes are severely cut back to less than 6”. Not all types of roses respond well to this treatment.

Hilling – A method used to protect roses from winter damage. Material, such as compost, is mounded 10-12 inches around the base of the bush after the ground is frozen.

Hip – the fruit of a rose, large and decorative in some varieties.

Inflorescence – the arrangement of flowers on the stem.

Lateral branch – a side branch which arises from a main stem.

Leaflet – the individual segment of a compound rose leaf.

Node – the point on a stem from which leaves and buds emerge.

Old rose – strictly speaking, a rose introduced before 1867, but more loosely used to describe any rose grown or introduced before 1900.

Once-blooming – a rose that flowers only once in early summer and does not repeat.

Open bloom – roses should be completely open and center stamen visible.

Own root – a rose propagated as a cutting rather than by grafting.

Peduncle – a stalk that supports a single flower or flower cluster.

Petal – the showy, usually colored part of a flower.

Petiole – the stalk by which a leaf attaches to a stem; also, leafstalk.

Pistil – the female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of carpels, ovary, style, and stigma.

Pith – the spongy material at the center of the stem.

Pollen – the yellow dust produced by the anthers.  It is the male element which fertilizes the ovule.

Prickle – the technical term for a rose thorn.

Recurrent flowering – same as repeat flowering.

Remontant – roses that repeat flowers during the season, same as repeat flowering.

Rootstock – the root portion of a plant onto which the scion is grafted; also understock.

Rose Rustler – a person who propagates Old Garden roses from cemeteries and old homes sites.  Etiquette requires that permission be obtained if possible before cuttings are taken.

Scion – a shoot grafted onto a rootstock; the “top” of a grafted rose.

Sepal – one of the five individual, leaflike divisions of the calyx.

Sport – a spontaneous genetic mutation, often resulting in a plant that bears flowers of a different color or with more or fewer petals than the original plant.

Spray – stem that has two or more blooms with or without side buds.

Stamen – the male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of a filament and anther.

Standard rose – a term used for tree rose.

Stigma – the part of the female organ of the flower which catches the pollen.

Stipule – a small, leaflike appendage that occurs at the base of the petiole.

Sucker – a stem, usually unwanted, that originates from a rootstock.

Sustainable Roses – are those roses that are winter hardy, possess above average insect & disease resistance, and require little or no pesticides in order to remain healthy.

Stage – an exhibition rose that is at its most perfect phase of possible beauty.

Stem-on-stem – Refers to a bloom on a stem that branches off another stem. This Y formation cannot be exhibited.

 

 

Until Next Time. Stop and Smell the Rose.

 

Rosalinda Morgan

 

www.rosalindarmorgan.com

The Green Rose for St. Patrick’s Day

The Green Rose

 

Is there a pot of gold for us lovers of roses?  For all the Irish in all of us, we can say we have a green rose, not St. Patrick rose which only has a tint of green, but a real green rose.  It is Viridiflora ‘Rosa Monstrosa’ otherwise known as The Green Rose.  The buds are small, oval, of soft bluish green color and quite beautiful.  The petals of the bloom reverted back to leaves (petals are modified leaves) and it does not have reproductive organs.  The “blooms” are usually formed in clusters throughout the year, and a spray of this rose is wonderful.   As you would expect from an Old Garden Rose, this one is fragrant too.  It has a spicy fragrance.  But unless you know what you’re looking for, it is hard to find the bud since the bush is totally green.  But is it really a rose?  The Green Rose is just that, a green rose.  It blooms continually through the season.  The small plant grows to 3’ tall and has few thorns.  It can be grown in a pot, and is rarely out of “blooms”.

 

It is an oddity and a conversation piece to say the least.  Just as when you present your friend with a perfect rose and they ask “Is that real?”, I bet you this same person will tell you this one is not a rose.  However, records say The Green Rose has been in cultivation as early as 1743 and is a sport from Rosa Indica (The China Rose of England and the Daily Rose of America).  So take pride, we have our own green to celebrate. 

 

“May the sun shine warm upon your face

And

May the rains fall softly upon your rose beds.”

 

Try it.  You might like it.  People either love or hate this rose   It is a wonderful rose to use as a filler material in arrangements or as a landscape rose. But you will have some visitors in your garden who will say “That is the ugliest flower I’ve ever seen.  Why do you give it space?” Because it is unique and fragrant. It is also a rose and it belongs to my rose collection.

HAPPY ST. PATRICK’S DAY!!!

 

 

 

 

 

Peace Rose for United Nations’Day – Oct. 24

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Parentage: (‘George Dickson’ x ‘Souvenir de Claudius Pernet’) x (‘Joanna Hill’ x ‘Chas. P. Kilham’) x ‘Margaret McGredy”.

Hybridized by the French hybridizer Francis Meilland in the late 1930s, and introduced by Conard-Pyle Co., West Grove, PA in 1945.

 

The rose that is called ‘Peace’ in the United States and Great Britain is called ‘Mme Antoine Meilland’ in France, ‘Gioia’ (Joy) in Italy and ‘Gloria Dei” (The Glory of God) in Germany. ‘Peace’ is one of the most famous roses of the century if not of all times. It is one of the few modern roses surrounded by legend and myth. It was bred by Francis Meilland under the code name 3-35-40 and named it Madame A. Meilland, after his mother. Francis Meilland hybridized another lemon yellow rose with ‘Peace’ as the parent and named her ‘Grand’mere Jenny’, after his paternal grandmother.

 

One story goes that it was hybridized in France in the last years before World War II, and escaped as unnamed cuttings in the last American diplomatic bag to leave Paris as World War II began. Recognized as a winner, the rose was propagated by Conard-Pyle Co., a leading American rose nursery and released in 1945. Because it returned in peacetime to a liberated France, ‘Peace’ was the name the rose was given. Later, the ‘Peace’ rose took the world by storm after being the centerpiece on all the tables at the organizational meeting of the United Nations at San Francisco in 1945.

 

Another version of the story of ‘Peace’ is that it began in France when the Nazi invasion forced young Francis Meilland to smuggle three one-pound packages of an experimental rose into other countries. Two of the packages were confiscated, but the third made it to Robert Pyle of Conard-Pyle Co. in the United States. Ten years later, after this rose of outstanding character and quality had been tested throughout the United States, the ARS planned a special name-giving ceremony. At the Pacific Rose Society Exhibition in Pasadena, CA, Robert Pyle declared “We are persuaded that this greatest new rose of our time should be named for the world’s greatest desire – Peace.” Francis Meilland’s rose was given its American and English name ‘Peace’ on April 29, 1945, the day Berlin fell to the allies. Nine years after introduction, an American authority estimated that some thirty million ‘Peace’ were growing in gardens around the world. Nowadays, nobody seems to have kept count. With all the royalties coming from the sale of ‘Peace’, the Meillands were able to build a rose hybridizing empire on the Cap d’Antibes on the Mediterranean shores.
 

Another melodramatic story, so often told, is that the budwood of ‘Peace’ was smuggled out of the south of France by a heroic U.S. embassy official in November 1942, just hours before the German invasion. It’s a very good story, but the truth of the matter according to Francis Meilland, is that the budwood was sent to Germany, Italy and the United States via ordinary postal channels in the summer of 1939. Southern France at that time was not yet invaded. It was perfect timing. By receiving a few cuttings in 1939, Conard-Pyle was able to introduce this rose at the San Francisco conference to found the United Nations, the day Berlin fell in 1945. If these cuttings were received in November 1942 they could not have started budding until 1943, and they could not have built up enough stock of this rose in time for nationwide distribution three years later.

 

The day the war with Japan ended, ‘Peace’ was given the All American Rose Selection Award. A month later, the day the peace treaty was signed with Japan, ‘Peace’ received the American Rose Society’s supreme Award, the Gold Medal. ‘Peace’ has won most of the world’s top rose awards: Gold Medal, Portland 1944; All-American Rose Selection 1946; Gold Medal Certificate, American Rose Society 1947; Golden Rose, The Hague 1965; Hall of Fame, World Federation of Rose Societies 1976; and Award of Garden Merit, Royal Horticultural Society 1993. Today, ‘Peace’ is still the world’s favorite rose.

 

‘Peace’ is a vigorous, bushy, upright plant, 4-5 ft. tall with stiff canes covered with large, leathery, beautiful, dark green, glossy foliage with good disease-resistant quality. New growth appears light red. ‘Peace’ resents heavy pruning.

 

Buds are high-centered and cupped at opening. Blooms are double (40 to 45 petals), 5 to 6 inches across, near perfect in form and more or less continuous flowering throughout the season. Colors vary from day to day but are essentially creamy yellow edged in rose pink. It has a slight fragrance. It is a good exhibition rose and an excellent cut flower. It’s rated 8.0 on the 2017 Handbook for Selecting Roses.

 

Flowers were huge in 1940s. Somehow ‘Peace’ planted in the 1940s and still thriving today at well-maintained public gardens, war memorials, or at the homes of veteran gardeners are larger compared to the blooms on the ‘Peace’ plant you will receive from any nursery today. Even if genetic science tells you otherwise, still the ‘Peace’ sold today is just a pale imitation of the old ‘Peace’. Vita Sackville-West hated it and thought it horribly coarse.

 

Hybrid teas bred since the 1950s often have at least a little ‘Peace’ blood in them. Of the many mutations of ‘Peace’ introduced over the years, the most popular is ‘Chicago Peace’. Other sports of ‘Peace’ are ‘Berlin’, ‘Garden Party’, ‘Gold Crown’, ‘Glowing Peace’, ‘Love and Peace’ (2002 AARS Selection), ‘Perfume Delight’, ‘Pink Rose’, ‘Princesse de Monaco’, ‘Royal Highness’, ‘Speaker Sun’, ‘Sterling Silver’, and ‘Tropicana’. A Climbing form was introduced in 1950. ‘Climbing Peace’ is a climbing sport of ‘Peace’. It has shiny, deep green, almost-leathery foliage, and it has a very pleasing color, peachy pink suffused with apricot yellow. Its buds are exquisitely pointed, and they open into large, long-lasting flowers. It is so robust and healthy that you never have to spray it with pesticides. Its one real flaw is a complete lack of fragrance.

 

‘Peace’ is showcased at the following Display Gardens: Sturgeon Memorial Rose Garden, Largo, FL; Atlanta Botanical Garden, Atlanta, GA; Julia Davis Rose Garden, Boise, ID; George L. Luthy Memorial Rose Garden, Peoria, IL; Richmond Rose Garden, Richmond, IN; City of Portland Rose Circle, Portland, ME; The Jim Buck Ross Rose Garden, Jackson, MS; and Norfolk Botanical Garden, Norfolk, VA.

 

Until next time. Stop and smell the roses.

 Rosalinda Morgan, The Rose Lady

 Author of “The Wentworth Legacy”

 www.rosalindarmorgan.com

 

Is It Hard To Grow Roses? Not If You Try Eco-Friendly Method.

IMG_1440As I talk to more people about growing roses, I was amazed at most of the answers I got, “Roses are hard to grow. You have to spray constantly.” Spraying scares some people. Most people just want to grow roses without spraying those chemicals and that is the main reason “Knock Out” roses are so popular. We have to educate them that there are alternative to spraying and there are other easy roses besides Knock Out roses.

Years ago, I sprayed my roses every week. Then in 1999, I decided to stop spraying because I could not stand the smell of those chemicals to the point of closing all my windows after I sprayed the garden. I was not going for the Queen of the Rose Show at that time. I was more interested in rose arrangements and showing my garden at our annual garden tour. I need color in the garden and fragrant roses. I discovered Bayers 3-in-1 systemic would do the same job so I used that. Then Bayers stopped selling them in New York. The first year, I did not spray, the garden looked terrible. Some of the roses got defoliated completely by August. But I ignored it as I looked for other alternatives.

For starters, I discovered Gardens Alive, a purveyor of earth-friendly products. I started spreading beneficial nematodes on the edge of the lawn in the spring and fall. They killed the grubs which grow up into Japanese beetles. I got rid of the beetles. For aphids, there are some environment-friendly methods you can use. Ladybugs and lacewing larvae will eat aphids. I used ladybugs. One rose supplier I asked told me to just give them a good blast of water. A heavy thunderstorm will probably do a better job than any dose of chemical spray. Since aphids cannot fly, once you knock them off the plant, they will not be able to return.

Red spider mite is a relative of the true spider and only occurs in the late spring/early summers in very dry conditions. Once you get an infestation, it is very hard to control but the most important thing to remember is that a very fine spray must be used on the sprayer and the plant must be completely wet. An application of dormant oil in late winter will kill eggs wintering on the ground. The telltale sign of an infestation is the leaves appear to lack color and eventually fall off. The mites, which are very, very small, appear on the underside of the leaves and are reddish brown.

To take care of diseases like blackspot, I used Pyola from Gardens Alive. I also bought Serenade from Possum Landscape Supply in Charleston. I tried Roses Alive a couple of years ago and the roses look very healthy without spraying toxic chemicals. I don’t own a sprayer since the year 2000 until I won one at our picnic two years ago. It is still in the box, unopened. This year, I tried Spray n Grow and it is a great product. My roses look healthy and the blooms are bigger.

Rose Gardening World on Facebook is a great source for eco-friendly rose care. If you ask, someone will give you an answer of what they use. Someone asked the other day what do you use for rust and the reply came: “I use two uncoated aspirins for a quart of water and let the aspirins dissolve and spray. I had my yellow girl with it and the rust disappeared in two applications.”

Most important of all is to keep your garden clean, tidy and weed free. Get rid of diseased leaves. I go out there every day and if I see leaves with blackspot, I pull them out. You don’t want the disease to spread. If you have pine straw mulch, it is hard to pick up the diseased leaves stuck between the straws so I opted for black cedar mulch.

Check your garden every day to see what is going on. Without those chemicals you are inhaling, you can enjoy the beauty that surrounds you anytime without the fear of harming yourself. It’s a healthy way of rose gardening.

Until Next time. Stop and Smell the Roses.

Rosalinda (The Rose Lady)

http://www.rosalindasgarden.com