The Galleon Trade


Acapulco Acapulco in 1628 – Photo Credit: Wikipedia 


The Manila Galleons were Spanish trading ships which linked the Philippines with Mexico when both were part of the New Spain. Until 1821, the Philippines was administered by the Viceroy of Mexico; direct rule by Spain only started in 1821.

The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade began when Spanish navigators Andres de Urdaneta and Alonso de Arellano discovered the eastward return route from the Philippines to Mexico in 1565. The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade lasted until 1815 when the Mexican War of Independence broke out.

Sailing as part of the expedition commanded by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi to conquer the Philippines in 1565, Urdaneta and Arellano were given the task of finding a return route. Reasoning that the trade winds of the Pacific might move in a gyre as the Atlantic winds did, they had to sail north to the 38th parallel north, off…

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Philippine Sea – What, Where and Its Place in the Philippine History


Phil Sea 1

The blue area is the Philippine Sea. To its left is the Philippine Islands.

Phil Sea 2

Can you visualize the location of the Philippine Sea within the vast Pacific Ocean? The long elongated island to the extreme middle left is The Philippines.

Philippine Sea is a section of the western North Pacific, lying east and north of the Philippines. The floor of this portion of the ocean is formed into a structural basin by a series of geologic folds and faults which protrude above the surface in the form of bordering island arcs.

The Philippine sea is bounded as follows:

On the southwest by The Philippine islands of Luzon, Samar and Mindanao

On the southeast by Palau, Yap and Ulithi of the Carolines

On the east by the Marianas, including Guam, Saipan and Tinian

On the northeast by the Bonin and Volcano islands (Iwo Jima)

On the north by the Japanese islands…

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Filipino Families in the Philippine Culture

Happy Father’s Day!


Today being Father’s Day, I want to talk about Filipino families.

Mom & Dad and my brothersMom & Dad with me and my brothers at a family gathering taken years ago.

Due to the importance of the family in Filipino culture, it is impressed upon every individual from childhood to adulthood that parents are owed a debt of gratitude for bringing one into this world. This is balanced by the belief and tradition that parents should make sacrifice for their children because they brought them into the world. Obedience to parents and to older siblings is taught early on and enforced until adulthood, whereupon it becomes one’s sense of obligation.

Children never attain equal footing with parents; parents are always treated with respect and the debt of gratitude is a lifetime one. Children are expected to serve their parents until their death. Through this system the older citizens are provided and cared for. There is…

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U.S. Army 244th Birthday / Flag Day

Happy Flag Day and Happy Birthday U.S. Army!

Pacific Paratrooper

244 Years Strong



Since its official establishment, June 14, 1775 — more than a year before the Declaration of Independence — the U.S. Army has played a vital role in the growth and development of the American nation. Drawing on both long-standing militia traditions and recently introduced professional standards, it won the new republic’s independence in an arduous eight-year struggle against Great Britain. At times, the Army provided the lone symbol of nationhood around which patriots rallied.


*****          *****          *****

Tomorrow is also Flag Day, an annual observance of the Second Continental Congress’ official adoption of the stars and stripes in 1777. At the time, they “resolved that the flag of the 13 United States” be represented by 13 alternating red and white stripes and the union…

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The Philippines Independence Day – True Fact


Philippine Flag

June 12 is the Philippine Independence Day, recognized through Proclamation No. 28 signed by then President Diosdado Macapagal on May 12, 1962 citing Emilio Aguinaldo’s establishment of the Philippine Republic from Spain. Congress then formally designated June 12 as the date of Philippine independence by passing Republic Act No. 4166 in 1964.

Despite what Aguinaldo said that June 12 marked our people’s declaration and exercise of our right to self-determination, liberty and independence, the United States which gained control of the Philippines from the Spaniards, refused to recognize it so in essence Philippine independence was not won in 1898.

When I was growing up, Philippine Independence Day was July 4 which to me make more sense.

In 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established with U.S. approval and Manuel L. Quezon was elected the country’s first president. On July 4, 1946, the Republic of the Philippines was granted full…

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12 Images of D-Day From The Artists Who Were There — Through the Shattered Lens

Ups and Downs of Family History V2.0

Today is the 75th anniversary of D-Day. On this day, in 1944, the Allied forces landed at the beaches of Normandy and, against overwhelming odds, began the liberation of Nazi-occupied France and later all of Western Europe. At least 4,400 Allied soldiers lost their lives on that day so that others could live free and, […]

via 12 Images of D-Day From The Artists Who Were There — Through the Shattered Lens.

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June Festival – Pigs on Parade



In Chinese culture, the Lunar New Year 2019 is the Year of the Pig where Chinese communities around the world celebrated the Year of the Pig Parade last February. Here in the U.S., several states celebrate Pigs on Parade for fundraising events using live pigs. In the Philippines, the folks of the towns of Balayan and Batangas feature the crispy roast pig or lechon at their annual local fiesta in June. The lechons go on parade surrounded by barbed wire to deter greedy hands.

At the centerpiece of any Filipino fiesta table, the lechon, or whole roast pig, is king. So prized is this succulent dish that the folks of Balayan in Batangas have highlighted the feast of their patron saint, St. John, with a tribute to golden-red lechon. On the eve of the fiesta, an anniversary ball is held at the town plaza, where the lechon queen is…

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